Understanding and Tracking Implicit Biases

Presented by: Milton A. Fuentes, Psy.D

View the webinar’s corresponding slides here     

Implicit bias, what exactly is it and how might it present itself in your life? Do you look past differences to see possibility? Perhaps you have a preconceived idea about a child that inhibits them being the best that they can be. Exploring these and other questions about bias and inclusivity and the strategies to address these issues will be covered in this webinar.

In this webinar participants will be able to: (a) define and explain the science of implicit bias; (b) discuss the empirically-based challenges of implicit biases in their respective settings; and (c) identify strategies that could address implicit biases.

Dr. Milton A. Fuentes received his MA in Psychology with a Latina/o Psychology focus from Montclair State University and his Psy.D. in clinical psychology from the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University. He completed a pre-doctoral fellowship in clinical and community psychology at Yale University and secured post-doctoral training in epidemiology at Columbia University. He is the 2012 President of the National Latina/o Psychological Association; a former member of the American Psychological Association (APA)’s Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs; and a current ethnic minority delegate to APA’s Council of Representatives. Dr. Fuentes is currently a professor in the psychology department, director of the Research Academy for University Learning at Montclair State University, and is licensed to practice psychology in New Jersey and New York.

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Doctor Fuentes received his master’s in psychology with a Latino psychology focus from Montclair State University in New Jersey, and his doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. 3:22 He completed a pre doctoral fellowship in clinical and Community Psychology at Yale University and secure post Doctoral Training and Epidemiology at Columbia University. 3:36 He is the 2012 President of the National Latino Psychological Association, A former member of the American Psychological Association Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs, and is the ethnic Minority Delegate to the Council of Representatives. Mister doctor Fuentes is a psychology professor and director of the Research Academy for a University Learning at Mont State Montclair State University. He is a light licensed to practice practice psychology in both New Jersey and New York. Doctor …, welcome to our series, and I will now tonight’s programming. Over to you. 4:19 Thank you, Marty, and thank you, Kelly, for that introduction. 4:23 Great thing, everyone, and thank you for joining us this evening. I’m gonna go ahead and get started. 4:30 First of all, it’s a pleasure to be with you this evening, to share a topic that is of interest to me. 4:38 I just want to provide a few parameters around what I’m about to discuss, the current thinking in the field, involving issues related to equity diversity inclusion. 4:55 Basically, informs us that there are two, There are a couple of ways of thinking about this. 5:03 Additionally, when we tried to train folks in the areas of equity diversity inclusion, folks would typically take out a very didactic approach, where audience will show up, the speaker would, would share information and the hope was that people would become culturally competent. Research on that particular approach found that it will approach was not very effective, and folks who are not necessarily becoming more culturally competent. The current research in the field is finding that folks really do need to be actively engaged in information and research and activities related to equity diversity inclusion. And so the researchers now suggesting is that people need to consider both the interpersonal and intrapersonal aspects of the training. We essentially need to start with ourselves when we’re talking about issues related to equity, diversity, and inclusion. 5:59 Recognizing that on the call today, they could cut close to 90 folks and probably have a very mixed group. 6:06 So today’s presentation will try its best to try my best to kind of present the material somewhere in the middle, hoping that those folks who have preliminary knowledge can fill in the gaps. 6:20 And those folks who have extensive thoughts in this area will this will serve as a refresher. Doctor Fuentes. Yes, you check your settings because I am I am seeing things that I should should not. I’m seeing your next slide, your notes. Could you change it, too? 6:41 Um, are you working on two screens? Now just, I just see one screen here, OK? 6:52 Hmm. 6:58 You should just see one slide opening comments, Hmm, hmm, Um, can you close? You click on that little orange button on that. 7:11 Um. 7:14 On your control panel. Yep. 7:21 OK, could have shown us. 7:28 OK, Can you click on, you have Show or show my screen up? 7:38 People could say, Yep, I’m sharing my screen. OK, to go on. Your PowerPoint, Go to File. 7:47 Oh! 7:55 OK. 8:02 I’m looking actually, I want you to go into PowerPoint mode, but not using the icon in the bottom right hand side. 8:11 Sorry, OK. Let me go ahead and do that. 8:17 Yeah, Show. 8:25 Current slide, how’s that? Kelly? Are still getting clicked down on your display settings. 8:41 How’s that? All right, I’m going to take control of the, oh, no, not that one. You had it? Just for a second. Yeah, Just for a second. Where it’s full screen for everyone. 9:07 Click. 9:11 All right, I’m going to take controls back and ongoing, oh, it’s working, OK, that’s it. We got it. So go ahead and go forward from here. Thank you, OK great, sorry folks for the interruption. So I just I wanted to just share with you really quickly that when it comes to discussing these types of topics related to multiculturalism. I just want to do a self care prompt here. So sometimes when we, when we have conversations related to issues related to diversity and multiculturalism, this, this can cause some distress. Some folks can feel psychological distress, physical distress. So, I just want to encourage you to engage in some self care. Over the next hour, as I, as I share with you, the different topics related to implicit bias, Professor Jackson at the University of Michigan has found that, sometimes only we focus on aspects of our identity. 10:09 People may experience some some level of distrust. I typically turn to, to mindfulness. When I’m engaging in conversations that might cause been experienced some discomfort. 10:21 So spending some time, feeling the weight of gravity on my body, against the chair, or my, my feet against the floor. Finding my breath. 10:33 Being mindful of my thoughts, and being mindful of my feelings as I’m engaging in, a conversation related to an issue related to diversity. 10:42 And they also just, uh, remind myself that as I’m having thoughts and feelings throughout the, throughout the conversation with the presentation, that, they are just thoughts and feelings, And I try to return myself to the breath. So, those are just some some mindfulness exercises that I engage in, too. 10:58 To cut to keep the levels of distress down to a minimum. So, I just want to encourage you to take care of your stuff in whatever way you need to thrill tonight’s webinar. 11:08 I want to share a little bit about my values related to issues associated with diversity and multiculturalism. First of all, as a clinical psychologist, I believe in change. So when we talk about issues, you alluded to implicit bias, and some of the challenges was biased, I do believe that it is possible for us to be aware of our implicit biases and engagement efforts to track them and monitor. 11:37 So I want to encourage folks to engage in proactive efforts. 11:41 The other thing related to my value around change, is that our implicit biases are a byproduct of something deeper. 11:52 So, keeping in mind that we want to think about things at the primary, secondary, and tertiary level primary level. 12:02 Meaning, that there are things happening in, in, in the larger society, that shaped our thoughts about individuals. And so, we want to take a look at, what are those mechanisms that contribute to our thought process, that contribute to our thinking around certain individuals? And how can we address those mechanisms at that level in my mind? 12:27 Those are kind of primary mechanisms, and then there are the secondary issues, kind of the things that might mediate those primary mechanisms that might contribute to why we develop implicit biases. 12:42 And then, of course, thinking about it at a tertiary level where these mechanisms are in place and they are contributing to our our thought process. 12:52 And so my hope is that we can engage in efforts at all in both the primer, primer, both the primary, secondary, and tertiary level. The other thing that I want to mention related to my values is the idea of thick narratives over. Then they’re in, in family psychology. Specifically, within narrative therapy, we talk about thick and thin narratives. 13:19 Narratives are the are the very simple ways that we understand individuals, they’re their socio cultural profiles, their identities. 13:30 It’s the kinds of things that we might get in a soundbite such as like a tweet or a quick Newsflash. Those are, those are thin narratives thick. 13:41 Narratives is when we take the time to develop a deeper understanding of individuals and society. So, for example, if I if I want to reflect on immigrants in the United States and if I take a look at all the soundbites that we’d get related to immigrants, those would, would be deemed Sydney narratives. 14:04 But if we take the time to really understand, what drives a person to lead their country, come to the US, In what ways does US policy perhaps contribute to that behavior? 14:22 Really thinking through all of those nuances, we start to kind of develop a thicker narrative with respect to immigrants. 14:29 So when we have a conversation around implicit biases, I want to, I want to encourage all of us to see if we can embrace the thicker narratives that are associated with implicit biases. I’m also going to use terms tonight that are also very thin, so if I use the term, like, a latin X individual, or a black person, or a gay person, or a person with a disability, I’m recognizing that Those are very simple terms that contribute to very thin narratives. 15:01 When we think about individuals who to describe or whose identities fit those categories that I just mentioned, we recognize that those individuals have richer socio cultural profiles, more nuanced sociocultural profiles. And so when I use a simple term like that, the … with convenience and I apologize in advance for forgive me for using terms that are very, very simple. It’s, again, it’s it’s about using a turn. It allows me to kind of captures the Louvre in a very quick way that a very convenient way. But I recognize the complexity and the nuanced aspects of a person and their identity. I also want to share that. I have a deep appreciation for diversity. The research is clear around around diversity. When we have folks who are different who have different perspectives different about differing values, people in the room tend to work harder. We tend to be more creative, more innovative so I have a deep appreciation for diversity and multiculturalism. 16:02 I offer, I also operate as a practitioner scholar, I like to use the research to inform my frameworks and for my perspective on various psychological issues. 16:15 And so, everything that I’m, that I’m doing tonight is, is based in theoretical models, is informed by the research, and that’s the way I typically prefer to operate. I also prefer progress over perfection that comes to talking about issues, religious diversity. Again, it could be rather, rather complex. 16:38 And if people are hoping to have a perfect conversation around diversity, it’s, it’s just not gonna happen. It’s complex. It’s nuanced. It could be a little bit messy. So the best advice I could offer is getting started with the conversation. 16:55 Thinking it through, reflecting on ways that we can perfect it, Integrate those reflections in, re-engage in the process until we move toward perfection. But if we’re gonna wait for perfection before we start addressing issues, religious diversity, we may never get started. And the last thing I want to mention with respect to my high values in the end our presentation today, is I try to maintain a humble stance when I do this work. 17:25 There is lots of good research being done in the area of diversity and multiculturalism, as I speak, things are being published and presented and so it’s, it’s difficult to stay on top of everything. 17:41 Today’s presentation is based on what I currently know, and I know, I know some about the topic, and I have a lot more alerts and wanted to maintain. Some humility is, as we had this conversation today, There’s some interesting research around what happens when individuals become experts in an area. They suddenly become very confident as they present the material. But they also become close minded, and dogmatic. Some mindful of that, as I have this conversation with your own implicit biases, and hope that I can remain open minded, and flexible as we engage in this conversation. 18:22 I just want to share this quick quote with you from a French philosopher when it comes to having conversations related to diversity and multiculturalism. 18:33 This quote is. 18:37 Between what I think I want to say, what I believe, I’m saying, what I say, what do you want to hear, What you believe, you understand, what you understand, there are at least nine possibilities for misunderstanding. 18:53 And I think currently in today’s time, we have lost the ability to have good conversations with each other. 19:03 People have become so polarized in in their positions that there, there isn’t a space for us to have conversations. 19:12 And I suspect that a lot of that is fueled by our implicit biases. 19:20 Just some, Before we get started, some, some fun or interesting facts about me. 19:24 I listened to a podcast a few, a few months ago about successful people and started to engage in some of the habits that these folks engage in. 19:38 So, I usually start my day with 10 minutes of meditation, actually, I start my day by making my bed. That’s one of the habits of successful people. That’s an immediate sense of accomplishment. 19:52 Then I spend about 10 minutes meditating, and then I reflect on 2 or three things that I want to get done at the end of the day and I think about how those 2 or 3 things connect to like bigger, personal professional goals. 20:10 I recently read a book I’m teaching by James Lang called Small Teaching, which focused on little things that we can do as faculty members to improve our teaching. Found it, found it to be a very helpful resource. 20:26 What am I guilty pleasures as anything associated with National Public Radio, NPR? I especially appreciate. 20:33 Wait, wait, don’t tell me. I had a chance to, to watch a broadcasting of, Wait, wait. Don’t tell me at Carnegie Hall. This past summer, really enjoyed that experience. I’m also a half marathon runner, I completed my sixth run. 20:48 Last spring I did, in New Jersey, have I am 1 of 8 children, I’m number seven. And my name is Milton. 20:58 When you look at the background of my name, it’s, it’s in English name, then it means destined for success. So that’s one, that’s quite the namesake that my parents gave me. 21:09 Just wanted to share a little bit more about me besides my, my professional credentials. 21:15 Also, with respect to the conversation we’re about to have this evening. 21:18 I just want to think through some guidelines for us so that we can pianists space That allows us to learn some people talk about it as a learning or bridge space. Some people talk about it as a safe space for the dangerous space. So, if you look at the figure on the screen, I’m hoping that we can stay somewhere in the green. That we can remain aroused enough to be able to be in a space where we can learn something new, Usually when we’re in a comfortable space, we’re not very good at. 21:55 And, learning things were just kinda, they’re at a very passive way. And then, there are instances where the arousal is, way too high, and we’re not able to consider the danger zone. So, my hope is that we can be in the learning zone together Where the arousal is optimal for learning the information I’m about to share. If we were to in a room together, I would ask you, What do we need to do to ensure that we are the learning zone? 22:22 In my conversations with folks across the country related to this topic, people have agreed to remain engaged, committed and respectful. They’ve agreed to keep an open mind and to monitor their judgement. 22:34 They’ve agreed to listen and learn to keep the focus on themselves, rather than sharing with folks what we think they should do. Rather than doing that, and you’re sharing advice, we typically ask folks to focus on their own experiences through experiments and hope. I’m hoping that we can respect privacy and then ask that we can value and modeled and profession as we engage in this conversation to see. 23:03 You’re gonna see a chat box in the console related to the webinar. 23:10 So, if you see the chat box, I’m going to ask you now to just spend a minute sharing with each other what you know, or what we know about implicit bias. 23:22 So, why don’t we start with that question. So, what do you know about implicit bias? 23:26 Go ahead, And if you can type something in that chat box, If you don’t, if you’re not capable typing something in the chat box, or you’re not able to see the chat box, go ahead and grab a piece of paper and pen and just write down what you know about implicit bias. 23:44 I’m getting to see folks typing in. 23:56 So, go ahead and post in the question box. 24:12 Give folks a few minutes to do that while. 24:16 Hmm, kellee gathers. 24:22 All the information for me. 24:38 OK, so we’ve got some folks here noting that implicit biases are unconscious. They’re, they’re unintentional. 24:49 It’s an operation at all times Sometimes how he makes sense of our world. 24:56 Somebody says, Here, bias is that a person is not aware of. We learn from life experience. 25:00 Then there is a need to learn more, OK. 25:03 Thank you, folks for for sharing your initial associations with implicit bias. 25:19 Alright. So let’s go ahead and continue. I’ve used the term implicit bias a few times. Now let me give you a working definition. This is a definition that was provided by two experts, around the area of implicit bias. Greenwald and Banerjee. 25:35 Implicit bias is traces of past experience that affects some performance. 25:42 Even though the influential earlier experience is not remembered in the usual sense, that is, it’s unavailable to self report or introspection. 25:54 So, things that we were exposed to early on in our lives, TV, parents, friends, teachers, newspapers, things that we were exposed to, that now, inform the way we think that those, that, those thoughts in that process, informs may inform the way we behave. 26:23 So that’s our working definition of implicit bias. five key characteristics, By the way, the current Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity releases a great report every year that summarizes the latest and greatest around implicit bias. And in 2000, in the 2017 report, here’s what they had to say about implicit bias. 26:44 Implicit bias is unconscious and automatic. 26:48 It’s pervasive, meaning everyone has implicit biases. 26:53 They don’t necessarily hear to what we consciously or actually believe, which is also known as explicit biases. 27:01 They have real-world consequences in important areas, such as employment, health care, legal matters, and education. 27:12 They’re also malleable, suggesting that they can be unlearn, and substitute with new mental associations are unbiased responses to those are key, key characteristics associated with implicit bias. 27:26 one byproduct of implicit bias could be microaggressions and specifically, racial, racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily, verbal and non-verbal, environmental slights, insults, and validations, and indignities, whether, whether they’re intentional or unintentional, which are directed toward people of color. Again, they’re unintentional. They’re outside of one’s awareness. 27:55 We’ve we’ve been typically socialized out of explicit bias of which if we have a particular thought about a particular group. We may not say it out loud, although, some folks have argued that the current political climate X has created a space for folks to kind of stay what’s on their mind about particular groups. 28:15 But, generally speaking, if we have a particular thought about a group, we may hold back, uh, with that sharing with folks. I want to just step out of the PowerPoint for a second. 28:29 And I want to show you an example of what a microaggression might look like. 28:49 I say. Yes. 28:56 Perfect. 28:58 San Diego. 29:03 Where are you? 29:05 Wrong? Well, I wasn’t born in Orange County. 29:09 But I never actually lived before that before I was born. You’re like, well, where are your people? 29:17 Well, my great grandma was from Saul. 29:21 Korean. 29:23 Japanese are leaning more towards Korea amazing shuffles really good barbecue places, actually really like kimchi. Cool. 29:39 Where are you from? 29:41 Where are you? 29:46 Really Native American? Or American. 29:54 Just going to pause this for a second: hopefully you got kind of a sense of what was operating there. Just an example of racial microaggressions. 30:14 I’ve gone back to showing my screen until it. Can you just let me know if you can see my screen OK here? 30:24 Now, I’m still seeing the video. 30:30 It’s you don’t hear OK? All. Right. Do. You see his party? Is seeing the split screen again instead of your full screen, OK, let me go ahead and bring it back here. 31:15 OK, Marty, let me know that this has got an excellent OK. Great. All right. So the good news about implicit biases is they can be unlearned. The researchers, The scholars who study here, implicit bias, have found that it is, implicit orientations have their basis in overland associations than they should be amenable to change, in other words unlearn. 31:40 So Let me let me bring this back to you know that you if you’re comfortable with the chat box, go ahead and type in the chat box. What can we do to dismantle our bias? 31:55 So if you find yourself engaging in certain strategies for dismantling your biases are addressed in your advice is go ahead and share them really quickly on in the chatbox, What do you do to dismantle your your biases? 32:14 I’ll give you just a minute to do that. 32:44 Seeing some, uh. 32:47 Some great stuff here. So one person mentions that they expose themselves to new and different experiences. 32:59 They raise their awareness. They’re curious. 33:02 They become aware and intentionally try to change. 33:06 one person mentions here, becoming more self-aware, reflective becoming more educated, ceasing to be judgemental. 33:16 Move away from 1 or 2 dimensional understanding of others in ourselves. 33:21 Educating ourselves about different groups. This is great, folks. Thanks for your comments. Come in if anything else comes to mind hidden. 33:31 Educating ourselves about different groups. 33:37 Great, thank you for that folks. 33:39 Alright. So let’s talk about things that we can do to reduce our, our race based bias. 33:48 So, these are all evidence based approaches or research informed approaches or strategies for reducing risk based PI’s. I’m going to unpack each one for you. 34:05 Before I do that, what I’d like us all to do is just really spend some time thinking about how you can actually use these strategies in your own life. 34:15 And the more specific we can be, the deeper connections we can make around these strategies and all allies will assure that we can actually start engaging in these strategies that will facilitate that process. It’ll It’ll take in that process stuff. So I just want to want you to really reflect on how you can use these shows, Your lungs. 34:39 Um, I also want you to keep in mind that as I present each strategy that they are or can be inter-related, they can inform each other. 34:49 So, when I talk, for example, about the strategy associated with contact, and I’ll unpack that a little bit contact, Can also lead to individually, and perspective taking. I’m going to discuss these three strategies in a bit, but I just want to illustrate that, they can inform each other, And so, by doing one, we can start to start. You can start the process of doing the other one, and certainly, the more we do it, the easier the strategy will become. 35:22 So, the first, the first step to addressing our implicit bias is to bring awareness to these implicit biases, And I wanna invite folks to visit Project Implicit. This is a program that comes out of Harvard University, where folks get a chance to complete a number of computer based inventories that assess your implicit bias around race, ethnicity, gender, disability, age, sexuality, in a week. And so, that’s the first step, the first step, is to bring awareness to our implicit biases. 36:03 Then, once we have a sense of our biases and we find ourselves engaging in stereotypical responses to individuals and society, then we can start to do what’s called stereotype replacement. 36:17 This strategy involves replacing stereotypical responses with non stereotyped responses. 36:25 It involves recognizing that our response is based on stereotypes, labeling the response is stereotypical, and reflecting on why the response occurred. 36:37 So, what I typically do is, like, if I’m having a conversation with somebody, and I find myself having a particular reaction to that person. 36:45 Maybe I’m getting frustrated, annoyed, appealing no discomfort around that person that I find most of having a negative thoughts about that person. that that’s a trigger for me to stop, and reflect on what might be going on with with this person in their identity. And is there an aspect of their identity that’s causing me to have this reaction? So, really listening to either our cognitive cues or our physiological cues within our body, then wondering about wondering whether these cues are associated with an aspect of this person’s identity. 37:24 Once once that’s happened and we take a look at the cognitive cues or the stereotypes that we might be generating with this person, we want to spend some time recognizing that it’s a stereotype liebling at a stereotype and thinking about ways to try to avoid that stereotypical response in the future. 37:50 Another strategy that can help us manage our implicit biases is called counter stereotypical imaging. 37:57 And this strategy involves imagining in detail. 38:00 A counter, stereotypically other. 38:04 These others can be abstract. So let’s say we have a stereotype with black people, We might think about smart black people. We might have … thing about famous black people such as Barack Obama or non famous play, such as a personal friend. 38:21 What this allows us to do is it allows us to have quick access to counter stereotypical information or counter certificate information around particular individuals. And the more we do this, the secure, our access to this data is. 38:45 Another strategy for reducing implicit bias is individuation, basically, this relies on preventing, stereotypically inferences by obtaining specific information about group members. 38:59 What that helps us do, this helps us evaluate members of the target based on personal reading, group based attributes, rather than saying, Oh, all members of a particular group are like this. 39:11 We, we can do color stereotyped images where we think about, into those who don’t fit, that stereotype. 39:19 And, at the same time, when we encounter individuals from a particular group, we can spend some time getting to know them in a deeper way. 39:27 For example, I’m gonna, I’m gonna provide all of these resources with you, but this link, I’m going to, I’m going to bypass the link, because it seems like whenever I get out of the the PowerPoint, I have to do some kind of logistical stuff. 39:48 So I’m gonna stay in the PowerPoint, but in this link, this this introduces individuals’ too, American Indians in a Canadian community, and how they’re typically depicted and who they really are. And it really allows you to kind of develop a deeper sense of that individual. I’ll provide all of these links to you, so you can have access to them and spend some time. 40:16 A colleague and I developed what’s called a socio cultural profile, where an individual can think about their membership in these various socio cultural categories. Like what’s the person’s race, ethnicity, class, gender, and ***, religion, sexual orientation, ability, and disability. 40:32 It also kinda helps you think about, does your membership in these categories give you power and privilege to this society setup, in a way that you benefit from your membership in these categories? 40:46 Or, is society set up in a way that you don’t benefit? There are actual obstacles, or barriers from allow you to access certain aspects of society, because of your membership in a particular category. 40:58 And so, this is a great way to develop a deeper understanding of it, an individual. It allows you to individually get to know people better, so that you move away from where we move away from group based evaluations and develop a deep appreciation for individuals in particular group. 41:21 Another strategy for introducing implicit biases is called perspective taking, and that is thinking about being, in being a member of that particular group, taking on the, a first person perspective. 41:39 In other words, what must it be like to be remembered in society to be gay, in society, to be disabled in society, really spending some time wondering what it must be like to be an individual of that particular group? 41:58 And, what the research has found, is, that, when we take time to understand that person’s perspective, we develop psychological closeness to that particular group. 42:08 It also prevents us from going to the default, which is the automatic group based evaluations. 42:15 So, thinking about what it’s like to be, a member of that group, allows us to be closer to that group and moves us away from or at an automatic, group based evaluations. 42:29 This is another great link that I want you to visit. this, is Jane. Elliot is a Wellknown researcher who did an activity called Blue Eyes and brown Rice with Kids. But kids have Blue Eyes retreated a particular way and kids are Brown eyes were treated particularly when It really help people develop deep understanding of what it feels like to be different in society and in this particular clip, she asked the audience. 42:59 To stand up. 43:01 If they wouldn’t mind being a black person in society, then nobody stands in in the group. 43:10 And she says, Well, maybe you didn’t understand me. 43:13 I’d like you to stand up if you wouldn’t mind being a black person in US American Society. 43:19 And again, nobody stands, and then she spend some time kind of thinking with the folks in the room, why it wasn’t nobody us to, it’s a great way to help individuals develop perspective for a particular group. So I’m going to again, I’ll share this resource with you so you can have access to, and you can check it out on your own time. 43:41 And the last strategy that I want to share with you is increasing opportunities to have contact someone I asked you earlier. 43:48 What are some things that you can do to reduce your implicit bias? Is some folks talked about having contact or engaging in activities that they are literally would engage in? This is another great way to reduce one’s implicit compliance to seek out opportunities to engage in positive interactions with this. What this does is it alters the cognitive representations of that group. It alters the way we think about individuals in their group and then eventually leads to an improvement around how we value that. 44:29 The challenge with contact is related to people being willing to engage in conversations with folks who are different. What Claude Steele has found in a number of elegant studies that we conducted was that. 44:49 When we are in a room with individuals who are different from us, we tend to shy away from engaging in a conversation with them because we’re afraid that we might say the wrong thing. 45:06 And as a result of that, he calls that identity theft, so our identity gets threatened, and therefore we tend to shy away from having conversations we’re having contact with people who are different than us. Which creates quite a conundrum, right? 45:22 Because if, if, if one of the strategies for reducing implicit bias is having contact with people, but we’re afraid to have contact with people because we’re afraid we might say the wrong thing, that creates quite quite detention for us. 45:36 So in a series of studies, but he found what Claude Steele found was that if we’re willing to keep this prompt in mind, keep in mind that tension is natural in a conversation about racial profiling in a conversation with somebody who’s different from us or whatever you fill in the blank. It’s typically difficult for everyone. 46:02 Tree, these conversations as a learning experience that is trying to learn about the issue and more generally about how to talk about charges from the people who may have differing perspectives. 46:14 What Claude Steele found was that when people receive this prompt they were more likely to engage in conversation with people who are different. So in other words, keep an open mind. 46:27 Be willing to listen and learn And that is going to allow us the contact that we need to have with with individuals who are different than us. 46:37 I’m going to be wrapping up in a few minutes, but I just this is a self reflection exercise that you might want to consider doing at home. So the first thing is, you know, consider a bias that you have. 46:49 You either that or you can do the implicit association test. And then once you have identified your biases, come to the self reflection exercise. 47:00 Wonder about what concerns you about this bias, and what ways can it be problematic? 47:07 Think about the last time this bias, the stereotype was engaged. What can you do to ensure that it’s not engaged in the future? 47:17 Think of individuals from this group who don’t fit the stereotype. 47:21 Don’t, who aren’t associated at the buys, and generate a list of individuals who don’t fit the stereotype. 47:30 What else do you know about this group? 47:33 What? What’s positive about this group? 47:36 Imagine yourself as a member of this crew. 47:39 What would it be like? 47:41 What challenges might you encounter? 47:43 Then reflect on opportunities that you might engage in to be with members of this group to be exposed to members of this group. This is just to self reflect sexualized though. These are questions as you probably have deduced at this point, that are associated with the strategies they introduce you to in this presentation. 48:04 While you’re engaging in this process, I want you to keep in mind that this can be rather taxied. So be sure to take care of yourself. 48:13 Engage in self care, in these, in these various spheres, so that you can be sure to engage in self care. 48:28 What I want you to do right now, again, since we’ve been doing a little writing today, this evening, I would like you to take one of these prompts. Consider one of these problems with respect to today’s webinar complete one of these sentences. And go ahead. And if you feel comfortable, go ahead and type it in your chatbox, I learned that I was pleased that I was disappointed that surprise them, pick one, and complete the sentence. And go ahead and put them in the chatbox that can take a look at what you’ve learned. Of course, I’ll keep your answers anonymous. I’ll just read what I’m, what I’m saying, but I will mention your name. 49:12 So, we’re here for a second to see what folks have to say. 49:27 So, with respect to today’s presentation, I learned that I was pleased that I was disappointed that I was surprised that pick one sentence and complete it, and go ahead posted in this box here. 49:46 All right. 49:47 I was pleased that, as a professor, develop, develop psychology, I kind of intuitive much of this information, excellent. 49:56 I was pleased that would I would. I know and feel about implicit biases on target with presentation, wonderful. I learned that there are strategies that I can use to address implicit bias. I appreciate you sharing the resources with us and look forward to researching further. 50:10 I was pleased that implicit bias can be chains. Wonderful. Thank you so much, folks, for engaging in this conversation with me. I’m going to turn it back over to Marty and Kelly, who I believe are going to facilitate a question and answer period with this webinar. 50:29 OK, With some questions. Thank you. I’m gonna launch right into this. 50:38 So I have a question from a middle school teacher. 50:44 The individual says, I’ve encountered students out of school who behave differently than they do insights regarding diversity and bias. Should I call them out on the comments at the time? Should I let it go or deal with it in school? Thank you for that question. 51:08 I think it’s incredibly important. 51:10 You know, youngsters are part of part of our job is to let youngster’s know what, what’s appropriate and what’s, what’s not appropriate. And it’s, it’s our job to set the tone. 51:24 And so if somebody makes a comment that is inappropriate disrespectful, we do want to. 51:32 We do want to spend some time calling attention to it, letting folks know that it’s not appropriate. 51:43 Try to understand where it’s coming from. 51:46 Engaging folks in some critical thinking. 51:48 Is there any evidence to support that particular attitude, that particular statement, understanding where it might come from? Which we don’t want to? 52:00 So, within, within the psychological field, there’s a, there’s a model called motivational interviewing, and we can use aspects of motivational interviewing to facilitate conversations. So, we might want to ask somebody, what’s the not so good side of what you just said? 52:22 Right? Because they’re saying is that they must. They must think there’s some value to it. So, we want to spend some time asking them, What’s the not good, so, what are the kinds of what you’re seeing? What you’re seeing the problem? 52:35 We can have that conversation privately. 52:38 We can bring it back to the group in a respectful ways that everybody can benefit from this information, but we do, it’s part of our job as, as adults as teachers, too. 52:51 Set the tone and let folks know what’s appropriate and what’s not appropriate. It’s interesting, because actually have a couple of questions along this line. But in this case, so they’ll school teacher. I don’t know. Maybe they’re at a mall or something. Movie theater, whatever. 53:10 So do you stop and kind of ask that question, Or do you let it go and deal with it in school and making it, or make it a teachable moment, Zen, or in school? Like, what’s kind of the way they don’t want to embarrass the kid? 53:27 But at the same time, so what would be your thinking? 53:35 The appropriateness of saying something, then for us, is maybe bring it up when that kid is in class. Not singling him out, but make it part of the lesson. Yeah, again, you know, these are all very particular situations with particular kids who I don’t know. 53:52 Jen, generally speaking, I think if there’s a, if there’s a way of bringing this conversation up in a lesson in a particular conversation in class through to a particular teaching moment. 54:08 I think it’s like when I think of myself and my nephew, for example, if he and I go to the movies, and I see the way a particular group is being depicted. So sometimes I’ll see that in in the movies. 54:26 Men are always stepping in to save the women, and so I will be after the movie I will spend some time kind of chatting with my nephew about, oh, why was, why do you think that the director felt a need to create this scenario where men save women, this, this woman in this movie seem quite capable, seem smart, she’s seem to have skills. 54:50 And so really kinda spending some kind of natural told my nephew thinking through some of the biases that were being promoted in that particular movie. So there’s a, there’s a natural way of doing it. Absolutely. 55:06 I think if it’s up, if you’re in class and somebody makes an inappropriate remarque, it’s important to say, that’s not appropriate in this, in this. It’s that’s an appropriate period. And we certainly don’t speak that way here. 55:21 And then, if there’s a way of naturally kind of integrating some of these conversations into into the lesson plans, that would agree. Yeah, OK, thank you. But it is tough in a social setting like this questions to, to manage that. Well, I think without having it go, just really bad kid. 55:47 So, have a question about, a request for you to talk a little bit more to it, Referring the page about prompts that we could use at the start of a conversation and explain a little bit more about them, is that something you could talk a little bit about here? 56:08 Sure, absolutely. 56:09 So, if we’re going to have a conversation about a particular topic that might make people uncomfortable, um, seeing the folks, again, related to that problem, so, listen, having a conversation about this can be difficult, and might be uncomfortable. 56:29 I just want to encourage everybody, too, to keep an open mind, let’s see what you can learn from this conversation. 56:37 Something as simple as that. 56:39 Who gives people permission to engage in the conversation? 56:44 So, if you are going to engage in a conversation with students, for example, or individuals around issues related to equity, diversity inclusion, you always want to have some some conversation guidelines like I, like I had very early on in the presentation. 57:02 So, listen, we’re about to have a conversation. It might be difficult for some of us in the room. 57:09 Keep an open mind until you can learn about it. 57:12 What do we need to put in place to allow us to have this conversation uncomfortable? 57:17 And then, and then put all the guidelines up on the board. Be respectful. Let’s listen. 57:23 So let’s, let’s respect privacy, so on and so forth, then, and then you had the conversation. 57:32 OK, all right, thank you. Have a question about resources. Let me just little launch, it’s going to get the sense of itself. 57:42 What are some good resources for learning about how common implicit bias negatively impacts students of various races? And there’s an actually a second part to it. 57:55 What are ways to create a buy in for teachers to learn about and identify their own biases to the two very rich question so that the current institute, as I mentioned earlier, current … RWA an institute. They released a report every year that summarizes the research around implicit bias, and there they really talk about how implicit bias plays out in healthcare settings and education settings in Lagos headings. So, if you’re trying to understand the implications, are modifications as Susan …, please check out one of these reports published, or authored by the current institute. 58:39 The second part. The second part of the question, now, how do we get buy in? 58:43 I’m actually driving down to Central Jersey on Friday to do, To what our presentations around implicit bias with, with teachers. 58:56 So, this is, this is after I did a three hour training with administrators in this particular districts. I met with the principal vice principals, guidance counselors. 59:09 So, in terms of by it, really, it’s important that it start from the top initiative, buy in from the top, to those and other administrators. And then, of course, that will make its way down to teachers with respect to teachers. 59:28 We want to assess teachers, goals, and values. 59:32 Teachers are in the classroom trying trying to actualize particular goals for the teachers are there because they want their students to learn. 59:41 They want to set up Aptible settings to learning. 59:45 If they realized that there were implicit biases, prevented them from accomplishing this goal, their implicit bias is prevented them from creating an optimal setting that’s going to create what I call discrepancy. 1:00:02 And that discrepancy, hopefully, will lead to people becoming open, and getting that buy in that you’re referencing in your question. 1:00:13 OK, uh, I have a question from someone who asked that. 1:00:21 Your answer included that Institute. 1:00:25 Could you, could you repeat the name? she didn’t quite get it. 1:00:29 The Kirwan Institute, Kayak or WA. And I believe I believe we’re going to be sharing the PDF of this PowerPoint. So a lot of the resources will be in there as well. 1:00:41 And the Kirwan Institute is referenced in the in the PowerPoint, OK, excellent. 1:00:49 This, I have a question about biases in kind of generalized. So basically, is that biases for all purpose has been around for years and this individualist saying that she heard stories about how difficult it was. For example, for the Irish. To find jobs in the early 19 hundreds, she says there were signs in businesses that said, no, Irish may apply. What she’s getting at, though, is, ultimately, they assimilated into the community. And the bias seem to diminish. 1:01:23 So is it, wouldn’t you think that assimilation is very important? 1:01:29 Part of getting past abayas so that is that that’s a question that has an incredibly complex answer. 1:01:41 And I happen to do research around what’s called cultural integration. When when people migrate into this country, they can do 1 of 4 things, they could assembly. 1:01:51 They can separate. 1:01:53 They can integrate or they can Marginalize, the research has found that, uh, integration, in other words, holding on to aspects of your culture of origin and embracing aspects of the whole host culture that’s called by culturalism or Culture Integration, that is the one option that is associated with the most positive psychological outcomes. 1:02:26 And an assimilation on the other hand, isn’t necessarily associated with the most positive psychological outcomes and so on, I, I wouldn’t necessarily say that people will eventually grow accustom, grow it. 1:02:49 I personally think that, as a society, we need to learn from the errors that we’ve engaged in. 1:02:58 No, if we treated the Irish poorly shame on us, we can learn from that, and we can think about how we can treat future groups better, we as a, as a country. 1:03:13 In my mind, as a country, we are who we are, because, of the diversity that we have in this country. We are, we are innovative, we are leaders where we are, hard workers were critical because of that diversity. 1:03:29 And I want to do whatever I can to embrace that diversity and not not dismiss that diversity or challenge that diversity, or hurt that diversity. 1:03:43 OK, that’s a good point. I’m personally, I’m thinking of the neighborhood. I grew up in and there was a, there was an English area that today, I mean, this is years later, that kind of English area is still there, and that’s where you go to get the best buy’s you’ve ever had. So, those, those areas like that are our wonderful contributions to the community. 1:04:07 So that’s, you know, that’s a silly story, but when I go back home, that’s where I go to get my part time to let us know so they can also get some. There are only open for four hours on a Saturday. And. Can you relate some of this that you’ve talked about tonight, specifically to some of our situations we have with kids with TS? 1:04:36 Apps? Absolutely, I mean, I think. 1:04:41 If I’m imagining that that this particular group faces biases on an ongoing basis and so while we want to help individuals from this group, certainly develop strategies to respond to these biases. 1:04:56 At the same time, we want to help the greater society be mindful of their biases and, and diminish their biases are addressed their biases. So the individuals in this group can flourish and thrive without the challenges, the challenges associated with the, you know, with these biases. 1:05:17 So, I think those are my immediate ways of kind of making these connections. 1:05:27 And that up question to that, which should strongly be communicated in a classroom situation by the person at the front of the room. 1:05:35 Absolutely. Yeah, that person sets the tone. 1:05:40 And, again, if we want somebody to change their attitude, confronting and challenging and shaming is not going to write really getting people to kind of think through, uh, there are stereotypes or biases. 1:05:58 Here’s what we want here to unpack it to develop empathy, Those are the things we know will work, shaming and challenging, confronting that, that, that might actually backfire. 1:06:15 I couldn’t agree more. Well, I think we’re over time. So I think I’m going to wrap it up here, and send everything back to Kelly for her to do her finish. Thank you doctor Fuentes. It was a great presentation. My pleasure, Marie, thank you. 1:06:33 Thank you for joining our Webinar on Understanding and Tracking implicit Bias.


  1. HDeluth says:

    What do you suggest be the first step in managing my biases?

  2. LindaS says:

    How can I help my children develop healthy biases?

    • Dr. Fuentes says:

      Ensure they get exposed to healthy images and attitudes about others. Children see and hear what we say; we are their best teachers. When prejudice is being promoted, help them deconstruct it.

  3. Julie R says:

    Is it really possible to reduce and eliminate implicit biases?

    • Dr. Fuentes says:

      I am an optimist and believe in change. Since we developed these associations we should be able to replace them, but it will take time and effort. There are a number of research strategies (as cited in Devine et al, 2012), including:
      Stereotype replacement (Monteith, 1993)
      Counter-stereotypic imaging (Blair, Ma, & Lenton, 2001)
      Individuating (Brewer, 1988; Fiske & Neuberg, 1990)
      Perspective taking (Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000),
      Increasing opportunities for contact (Pettigrew, 1998;
      Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006).

  4. DougM says:

    As a soccer coach, I hear biased/inappropriate comments from the sidelines often made by parents. I’m afraid one of these times it will erupt into an altercation. Any suggestions on how to handle that?

    • Dr. Fuentes says:

      Be proactive. Hold a meeting or send a letter to parents. Share that it’s important to promote inclusive environments; ask for their help in doing that through their language and actions.

  5. LorenaJ says:

    I would like your opinion on this situation with my husband’s uncle who fought in Korea. The teenagers in the family have asked him about his service which I would not usually want to discourage, but he sort of launches into stories about his time there that are often not appropriate and in my opinion biased. I realize that is his view based on his experiences, but it requires explanation/clean up afterward. My husband wants to leave it alone; I think we should discourage the questions. Your thoughts on how to manage this so the information he shares is a positive experience for the family.

  6. Dr.Fuentes says:

    Spend time with the teens explaining that these are “select” instances but not reflective of the overall community. Discuss how prejudice leads to discrimination and how that hurts us all. Share that diversity is associated with a number of benefits, including innovation and creativity. There are a number of online resources that highlight the benefits of diversity, including https://www.talentlyft.com/en/blog/article/244/top-10-benefits-of-diversity-in-the-workplace-infographic-included. Check them out.