Ask Dr. Ticcy: Do kids with Tourette understand sarcasm?

Dr. Ticcy is a pseudonym for the Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada National Office, which draws on information from experts across Canada and beyond to answer questions from the TS community. Please send your questions to with the salutation “Dear Dr. Ticcy.”

To Dr. Ticcy:

I’ve read that kids with TS can have trouble understanding sarcasm. Is this true?



Dear T.J.

You ask an interesting question.

Research has found that it can be hard for adults with TS to understand what people mean when they aren’t literal. A recent study examined whether this applies to children as well.

To test whether the children involved in the study understood sarcasm, the researchers presented them with three different kinds of scenarios.

The first kind of scenario ended with a literal or sincere remark. The second kind ended with a sarcastic remark that could be understood simply by reversing the meaning of the remark. An example of this kind of remark would be “Having Tourette is always really easy” (the truth is the reverse – it is not always easy). The final type of scenario ended with sarcasm that wasn’t straight forward. In other words, this remark couldn’t be understood just by reversing the meaning of the comment.

Kids with TS scored the same as those without TS on interpreting direct or sincere comments and they scored better when it came to direct sarcasm (where they could reverse the meaning of the comment). When it came to interpreting indirect sarcastic remarks, they scored below the children without TS. The most common type of error that children with Tourette made was to interpret the sarcastic comment literally, even though it was not meant to be sincere.

The authors concluded that children with TS may have some difficulty understanding sarcasm, however, this difficulty is fairly subtle.

What do you think?

Do you know of children with TS who have a hard time with sarcasm?

52 Weeks of TS: Week 52

EDITOR’S NOTE: Over the past year on Tuesdays, noted Tourette Syndrome advocate Troye Evers has shared his “52 Weeks of TS” blog journal with the TSParentsOnline community. This is the LAST week of this series, so there’s a chance you missed one or more entries from his exciting, revealing journey. You can read all of them here. For more information about Troye, please click on his name or visit his website.

Is it really here? Have we reached the 52nd week of this series? From doctor appointments to social events, from new tics to new jobs, I have expressed it all and I have learned and grown from the whole experience. I’m sad that I have reached the end, but excited for what will come in the future.

But I’m still led to ask, “Why do I do this to myself?” Why are there certain occasions that I still let fear and embarrassment rule my life and cause me to be this untrue version of myself? The answer is easy, it’s those judging eyes. It’s much easier when you’re dealing with a one on one situation, but when you have a room full of people looking at you, staring at you, judging you, it can be hard.

It brings me back to my school days, sitting in the classroom and having all my peers and teacher looking at me. The only difference now is that I have an explanation. I know what to say to someone who asks that dreaded question, “Why are you doing that with your head?” but there is still that fear of people asking.

The rest of the week went well, but just more running around and very little time to rest. Besides working, I also was planning a  dinner for my co-workers. I have OCD, and for some reason I think it would be a good idea to invite 10 people over to my house for dinner. Do I really want 10 people walking around my safe zone, spreading germs, making messes, and moving and touching my stuff?

Well, I guess it’s too late. I opened my big mouth. Having a dinner party with this amount of people takes a lot of planning and organization, which is fine with my OCD and anxiety disorder. However, did I really need to set the table a week before the party? Yep, a week before hand. My husband questioned me about why I set it so early and I explained to him that I did not have time during the week to do it. Really? The truth is I’m OCD. I had to set it up early enough so I would know it was perfect. Everything had to be in the right place, and I needed to make sure it was all organized correctly.

Despite all my OCD’s the dinner went very well. Normally with an event like this, I would have asked everyone to take off their shoes as not to spread the germs of the NYC streets all over my apartment, but I was not able to do this. About 30 minutes before everyone arrived, my husband shattered a glass top to a casserole dish. The glass flew everywhere. Besides the kitchen, I found glass in the hallway and living room. We tried to clean it all up, but I knew there still might be a piece somewhere. Now the decision has come. I would much rather the germs of NYC in my apartment than the chance of someone’s blood.

How does my mind go to this extreme? Am I really OK with dirt from the streets on my floor, but not blood? I mean I could always mop the floor and sanitize them to clean up the dirt, but what if the blood touched me? OK, I know it sounds insane, but for me blood leads to death. What if someone has some deadly disease and they cut themselves and then I cut myself? OK, it doesn’t sound insane, IT IS INSANE!

Basically, what I’m saying is that a broken glass in the kitchen will lead to my death. Are you kidding me? I know I need to calm down about some things, but this is how I am. Everyone came over and we had a delicious meal (and everyone kept their shoes on, so I’m glad to say the grim reaper will not be making a stop at place anytime too soon.)

As I reached the end of the week, I reached the end of this series. It’s been a wonderful year, and I achieved my resolution. I reached out to so many people and educated many of them. I opened my mouth and through my words, I learned more about myself. I think my resolution for the year to come is to not be afraid. To be myself.

The end.

Ask Dr. Ticcy: Tics past age 30

Dr. Ticcy is a pseudonym for the Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada National Office, which draws on information from experts across Canada and beyond to answer questions from the TS community. Please send your questions to with the salutation “Dear Dr. Ticcy.”

Dear Dr. Ticcy,

I thought that my tics would decrease as I got older but I am 30 years old and my tics are worse than ever. Does this mean that I don’t actually have TS? Will my tics ever decrease or go away?



Dear Ticcing-at-30,

Typically, when someone has TS, their tics usually begin early around age 5-7. They increase with time peaking between the ages of 10-12 and then after puberty, their tics start to decrease in intensity. There are some cases, however, that do not fit this pattern. Some people with TS have tics that are intense in both childhood and adulthood.

Others, like yourself, have tics that are mild in childhood and more intense or frequent in adulthood. While this is rare, it is possible though the reasons for this pattern are not well understood by scientists. Some possible explanations have been suggested such as cocaine abuse, use of anabolic steroids or extraordinary life stress.

Your question about whether your tics will ever decrease is difficult to answer. It is difficult to say how they will progress with time. On the plus side, since TS is not considered a progressive condition, we have no reason to assume that they will continue to become worse or more intense as you age.

If your tics are interfering with your daily functioning or if they are causing you any physical pain or discomfort, you may wish to visit a specialist to discuss potential treatment options. Possible treatments include behaviour therapy and/or medication. Keep in mind that stress, positive or negative excitement, tiredness, and illness are likely to increase your tics. In contrast, good sleep hygiene, exercise, healthy eating, and generally good mental and physical health have the opposite effect on tics.

If you would like some more information about treatment options, specialists, or tic triggers, please contact a local volunteer or the National Office of Tourette Canada.


Dr. Ticcy

52 Weeks of TS: Week 51

EDITOR’S NOTE: Every Tuesday, noted Tourette Syndrome advocate Troye Evers shares his “52 Weeks of TS” blog journal with the TSParentsOnline community. With just ONE week remaining in this series, there’s a chance you missed one or more entries from his exciting, revealing journey. You can read all of them here. For more information about Troye, please click on his name or visit his website.

I have described my TS through analogies, poetry, honesty and fear, but the reality is that I have TS. I am Troye Evers and I have Tourette Syndrome. I don’t like my tics, but I’m going to own them. I don’t like my OCD, but I’m going to grasp it. It is an endless struggle, but it is part of me, it’s who I am. My TS has taught me so much, and helped me teach others.

It’s been about a week since I have stopped taking the Chinese herbs and I have not seen a change. Do I have to wait another four to six weeks for my tics to go back to normal, or am I stuck with these new tics? Out of everything that I have tried this year, the only thing that I have noticed to actually help is the fish oil.

I don’t regret anything that I’ve tried. It was all a learning experience. Therefore, something didn’t work for me. That’s the thing with TS; it is really about trial and error. Just because it did not work for me does not mean that it won’t work for someone else, but like 52 Weeks of TS, I think I’m near the end of my journey of trial and error. I could continue experimenting with different medications and other rumored helpful remedies or I can just accept what I was given. By accepting what I was given, I would make myself stronger.

As we venture deeper into the season, my OCD’s get worse. This is a normal thing, it happens every year. The media does not help me with this. The news is always reporting about how dirty and germ filled different places are. The other night they did a report on café’s and how germs are spread and how many there are. It’s really just gross. Do you realize how many people don’t wash their hands after going the bathroom? Then they will go to get their coffee and fill it up with milk. Now there is feces and urine on the milk that I’m about to put in my coffee. Just one more reason to never leave my apartment.

It’s things like this that makes my OCD and Germaphobia so bad. I don’t think I feed into it too much; it’s more the stupidity of other people. I walk around and watch people cough and sneeze all over the city with no cares of who’s around them. This week, I actually watched two examples of people’s stupidity like this. One was on my morning subway ride to work.

As I’ve already said, the subway ride is usually the hardest time of my day especially for my OCDs. One morning I was on the train and across from me was a mother with her son who was about three years old. I sat there and watched as the mother let her child climb all over the seats, then lay on the seats and put his feet all over the window. These feet that are all over the seats and windows are the same feet that have walked all over the city that is cover in bird feces, dog feces and rat feces.

This was not the end of it. After the little boy put his feet all over the window, he proceeded to get up, stand on the seat again and put his face and lips on the window that his feet were just on. The mother did nothing. Are you serious? It’s just absolutely disgusting. Now everything that your child has stepped in all over the city is now in his mouth. They soon got off the train and someone else sat down in the kid’s seat and rested his head on the dirty disease covered window. That poor unaware person.

This was not the only thing like this I saw this week. I also witnessed a woman walking down the street with a dead bloody pigeon. It looked as if the pigeon might have just been hit by a car, but really. Are you really just walking around carrying a dead pigeon with your bare hands? Pigeons are the most disgusting, disease-covered birds in NYC.

I’m not really fond of any birds, I think they are all gross, but pigeons are the top of that list. They eat anything, including garbage and I have even witnessed a pigeon eating a dead pigeon on the road. One of my friends and I used to call pigeons “rigeons” because they are rats with wings, and now this woman is walking around with it in her hand. The only question I have is, when is it going to be legal for me to walk around and spray strangers with my Lysol?

Yet I am still here, so I’m going to keep on keeping on. I have a bigger battle — educating people about Tourette Syndrome. Until next week, “I’ll tic to you later.”

52 Weeks of TS: Week 50

EDITOR’S NOTE: Every Tuesday, noted Tourette Syndrome advocate Troye Evers shares his “52 Weeks of TS” blog journal with the TSParentsOnline community. With just TWO weeks remaining in this series, there’s a chance you missed one more entries from his exciting, revealing journey. You can read all of them here. For more information about Troye, please click on his name or visit his website.

I’ve been doing a lot of thinking lately, thinking about what I’m hoping to achieve through my writing. I was asked about this topic this week when I did an interview about blogging, writing and reaching out to the TS community. The interview was for the TSA newsletter, and it got me thinking: Besides a little ADHD and having a little difficulty concentrating, I don’t have that many problems writing. I can set a time line and finish the project in that time line. If I sit down in front of my computer, the words just roll onto the screen. I might not have a hard time now, and enjoy what I do, but this wasn’t always the case.

Back in school, I was always behind with my work and it was always a struggle. Being in a classroom full of students with all sorts of distractions did not make it easy. I know there are still children today who are struggling the same way, too scared and embarrassed to say anything. I wish I knew then what I know now, maybe I could have changed something in my educational process to make it easier and more enjoyable.

I have noticed recently that my tics are changing. I guess that they are always changing, but this is different. I’m not sure if they’re getting worse or if I’m just having a harder time suppressing them. I have said before how I have been getting more comfortable with my tics and not feeling the need to suppress them, but even in situations when I’m trying to suppress them I am finding it to be a struggle.

I’m starting to think it might be the Chinese herbs I’ve been taking. I have been taking them for more than six weeks now, and I don’t feel as if it’s helping at all. Now I’m just in a panicked state, wondering if I screwed up my body more with the herbs. I have made a decision to stop taking them, I have not spoke to my herbalist about this yet, but I just feel as if it’s something I need to do.

Our bodies are constantly telling us what they need. If we lack vitamin C, we crave orange juice; if we need protein, our body will let us know it needs some. This is how I’ve been feeling this week. I have been having many smaller tic attacks that I can’t control, and there is something in my body that is pointing to the Chinese herbs. So yet again, one more failed attempt to find my nonexistent path to normalcy.

One of the new tics I have noticed is a violent flipping in the middle of the night. I always thought I did not tic in my sleep. Even my husband has said that he knows when I’m asleep because I don’t tic anymore. In the past few weeks, I have noticed that In order to roll over, I tend to do this violent full body twitch to roll over. It’s so violent that I actually wake up. It wasn’t until this week that I started wondering about this new strange movement. Is it a new tic?

The other morning my husband woke up and told me I was not allowed to keep complaining about his snoring if I was going to continue this violent flipping thing I was doing. That was it, I was convinced that this was a new tic. My husband has noticed this new tic, and it is even keeping him up. Well I guess it’s even with the amount of time he keeps me up with his snoring.

I think this new tic was the last straw in my decision to stop the Chinese herbs. Is this new tic caused by the herbs or is it just more of the waxing and waning of the syndrome? It’s just gets me thinking more about what I might be doing to my body with all of these attempts to find a cure. Is there a cure? Is little old me going to be the one to find it? Is my life that bad that I need to keep attempting to do this to my body?

The truth is my life is good. I’m happy; I just do these weird movements. I’m sure I could continue educating people about the reality of TS, but how much would I really get across if I looked normal. If I twitch and tic, it will be easier to start a conversation if someone notices.

Maybe all of these attempts to find the cure, might be one more way for me to hide from whom I am, and that’s not what I want to do. Throughout this year, I have tried so hard to educate people and every time I do, I experience the greatest, warmest feeling inside. When I was hiding from who I was, all I felt was shame and loneliness. Why would I want to go back there?

I still find myself doing little things to hide from who I really am. This week I did some shopping for some winter clothes and I realized something else. I love hoods. Most of my shirts, sweatshirts, or coats have a hood. Wintertime is the best time for me to show off this love, but there is more behind this fascination. It is a way for me to hide. If I have a hood on, I feel like people can’t see my tics.

Armed with my hood, my sunglasses, and my earphones, I am hiding from the world. I think it is time to take off my armor, take off the sunglasses, take out those earphones, and pull that hood down off my head. Life is a learning experience and we spend our whole life doing this. Perhaps the whole reason I have gone on this journey was for me to learn. Let the world see me for who I am.

Until next week, “I’ll tic to you later.”

52 Weeks of TS: Week 49

EDITOR’S NOTE: Every Tuesday, noted Tourette Syndrome advocate Troye Evers shares his “52 Weeks of TS” blog journal with the TSParentsOnline community. With just THREE weeks remaining in this series, there’s a chance you missed one more entries from his exciting, revealing journey. You can read all of them here. For more information about Troye, please click on his name or visit his website.

OK, this is really it. We are coming so close to the end of this series. I really can’t believe how fast this year has flown by. Is it really already the end? I spent the evening in a minor anxiety attack. I guess the fish oil does not help with all anxiety. I tried to keep distracted with TV, but it was not helping that much. I did end up having to take a Klonopin just to relax myself so I was able to go to sleep. By the time I woke up the next morning, I pretty much forgot about the events of the night before, but I was quickly reminded.

I was walking along the area rug in my bedroom when I heard and felt a crunch under the rug. This is usually no big deal. I am always finding something that the cats got a hold of and have hidden under the rug. I have found pencils, matches, pen caps and whatever they get a hold of, but I never expected to find a mouse. Yep, a mouse. I felt and heard the crunch, and without thinking, I just lifted the corner of the rug to find out what they put under there this time. There it was, lying lifeless but its germ and disease slowly spreading through my home.

After a minor freak out, I knew I had to remove the deceased body myself. I went into the kitchen, and retrieved a pair of tongs and a garbage bag. After picking up the mouse with the kitchen tongs and putting the mouse and the tongs in a large kitchen garbage bag, I threw everything down the garbage shoot and went on to Lysol almost every square inch of my apartment.

I have spent most of the past 48 discussing different ways and options that I was attempting to help with any of my symptoms of TS. One of the most effective things is fish oil for my anxiety, but it is definitely not working on OCD and Germaphobia. I have tried many different paths, a lot of them with no outcome, but that’s just my case.

People with TS are all different, so something that doesn’t work for me, might actually work for someone else. I have been trying acupuncture and Chinese herbs and I am closely approaching the six-week period where I should be seeing some type of change, but I haven’t seen much of a change so far. I have tried to pay attention to any differences in my body, but all I can notice is maybe more tics, or just a harder time trying to suppress my tics. I don’t know if this is the Chinese herbs, or just the comfort and acceptance that has grown inside me.

I have grown a lot this year, and become very comfortable with myself and who I am. That’s what life is for, to grow. Even though the year is close to the end, I still plan to continue on my journey of growing and educating and I hope you do, too. Until next week, “I’ll tic to you later.”

52 Weeks of TS: Week 48

EDITOR’S NOTE: Every Tuesday, noted Tourette Syndrome advocate Troye Evers shares his “52 Weeks of TS” blog journal with the TSParentsOnline community. With just FOUR weeks remaining in this series, there’s a chance you missed one more entries from his exciting, revealing journey. You can read all of them here. For more information about Troye, please click on his name or visit his website.

It’s a quiet night in New York City — not a normal night, but a night that you think you can walk down the street and let out one of those tics. One of those weird and strange tics. Can you really walk down the street in New York and let out a barking tic without anyone noticing? Nope. No matter what there are still people out there.

Just when you think you’re alone and you fling your head around, or make some weird vocal tic, someone walks around the corner. You see the stranger look at you with that questioning look, asking themselves if they really saw or heard that. They subtly look at you to see if it happens again, and wonder what is wrong with you.

This is the point where you try to cover it up, a violent throat clear as if you’re choking on something, or maybe a swatting at your face as if there was some bug on your face. Did it work? Do they really believe the cover up, or do they just think you’re a crazy person?

We travel a hard and difficult road. As anyone with a disability, or something that makes them different, you can never really understand what they are going through. I can write and write about what is going on in my mind and body, but does that really put you in my shoes? Can you really understand what is going on in a body of someone with TS? Do you feel the fear, do you understand the embarrassment?

I don’t think someone will ever truly understand unless you have actually experienced it to the level of someone with TS. I can only put so much into words and on paper, but the truth lies inside me. The emotional and mental war that goes on inside me sometimes feels like an endless battle, but I continue to fight. I fight with my words and experiences in hopes to educate one person, but that’s only part of the war.

I might be able to dispel some of the stereotypes of TS in one uneducated individual, but I still have to battle what’s going on in my body. Education does not make my tics go away, it doesn’t calm the anxiety, and it is not going to rid the embarrassment I live with. I fight these battles alone.

To fight these battles I find new weapons all the time. It’s almost like a video game; if one weapon doesn’t work, I go into my arsenal to find a new better weapon that might do the job. So far, I have found some good weapons. The fish oil has been working great with my anxiety. It has not rid me completely of all my anxiety, but so far so good. I never thought that I could be or would be as anxiety free as I am today, but I do feel blessed by this.

After living with such anxiety for so long, it is hard to get used to being as calm as I am. I still am having difficulty dealing with the lack of anxiety in my everyday life. As I said last week, I have become much more laid back with my daily rituals. However, it’s a soothing change to not be worried about so much.

The world is not going to end if I wait until morning to put the dishes in the dishwasher, or wait an extra day to water the plants. It’s a beautiful thing to sit in bed for that extra hour and not worry about finishing everything that has to be done before I have to leave for work. If I don’t get it all done, there is always time to do it later.

One of the newest weapons in my arsenal is a combination weapon of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Does this work? Is this working? I’m still not sure. My acupuncturist said it takes about four to six weeks to see a difference. As for the acupuncture, I have reached that six-week timetable, but I still have not seen any positive changes.

Last week I said that I felt as if my tics actually got worse after my session and actually may have had inflamed muscles in my back causing horrible back pain. I discussed that with her this week and we tried a new path in our journey. Instead of lying on my back and getting needles strategically place on my front, this week I laid face down with needles in my back.

In addition to the needles, she also used an ancient Chinese method of cupping which has been said to be an effective form of deep tissue massage. Did this new path work? Once again, I can’t say. By the time I had my appointment, the back pain was gone, but who knows, it might work in the long run.

I was able to reschedule my book release party this week for A Day in the Life of Tourette Syndrome because of the lack of attendees after the last book release. It was quite a success, and I was able to meet and talk to some of the people that I reached in my battle to educate. Just to hear how much they have learned from my words made everything I do worthwhile.

I know I can’t change the world all by myself, but I can get one step closer with each person I reach. I’m going to continue to reach out to people and educate them. If we all try in some way to educate someone, we will be one step closer to educating the world.

Until next week, “I’ll tic to you later.”

52 Weeks of TS: Week 47

EDITOR’S NOTE: Every Tuesday, noted Tourette Syndrome advocate Troye Evers shares his “52 Weeks of TS” blog journal with the TSParentsOnline community. With just FIVE weeks remaining in this series, there’s a chance you missed one more entries from his exciting, revealing journey. You can read all of them here. For more information about Troye, please click on his name or visit his website.

Happy birthday to me! Speaking of birthdays, I think I have concluded that I want my cake and I want to eat it, too. This has nothing to do with my actual birthday, but more about my life. I have been taking the fish oil for about two months now and have noticed different changes in my body.

Not only has it helped decrease my anxiety, but now I’m thinking it might be helping a bit with my OCD. I don’t think it is actually ridding me of my OCD tendencies, but I think that a lot of my anxiety triggered my OCD. It’s not affecting the germaphobia part of my OCD, but the cleanliness part is being affected. There are little things around my apartment that are taking me longer to do than they normally would. I’m actually leaving dishes in the sink, and I’m not freaking out about things being in the right place.

I’ve spent the past year trying different things to rid myself of different symptoms of TS. Now that I have decreased my anxiety, I’m happy, but am I ready to rid myself of certain OCD tendencies? I have always prided myself on the cleanliness and organization of my home, and now I feel as if it might be suffering.

There’s no winning. Either I can be filled with anxiety and have a clean home, or I can be relaxed in a dirty home. I know it’s really just my mind; my home is not that dirty. It’s yet another roller-coaster of emotions going on in my body. For example: Once we are done cooking, I will look at the dishes and have a little freak out in my head, telling myself I should clean the dishes, but there’s another voice that says I can do them later. It’s time to relax.

Who is this voice telling me that I can relax? I haven’t relaxed in years, and now that I am, I’m not sure if I’m ready. I know that this might make no sense, but I guess this is why I’m writing it. Sometimes things that happen in the head of someone with TS doesn’t make sense to someone else, but it might make sense to us.

I had yet another acupuncture appointment this time, but this week was different. Every week she pokes me with a bunch of needles, always in different places on the body. Sometimes on the head, sometimes in the ear, or wherever. It doesn’t hurt, but I have yet to notice any differences with my tics until this week. Nothing got better, but instead got worse.

All evening I kept on experiencing weird muscle spasms and new tics, but they were not like normal tics. I know when I’m about to tic, but these tics came out of nowhere. They just happened and that was it. This went on through the night and even after I went to sleep. That night was one of the worst night’s sleep I had in a long time. Every time I fell asleep, one of my muscles would jerk and wake me up. I was freaked out, wondering how long this would last. Thankfully by the morning I was my normal ticcy self, but I was left with a horrible back pain from ticcing all night.

The back pain is not new to me. This is the back pain that I spoke of before. I get huge knots in my back from ticcing, stress and anxiety that cause excruciating pain. It’s always on my right side, causing me not to be able to move my neck, turn my head or have much movement in my right arm. There is also another thing that lives on my right side, all my tics. Every time I tic, the pain just runs through my whole right side. I’m not blaming the back pain on acupuncture, but it is definitely something I’m going to bring up to my acupuncturist next week.

Despite all the pain, I still had to live my life. It was a full week. I also did a book interview for an online web show. Normally I would be extremely nervous about this, but I wasn’t. I’m not sure if it was the fact that I had so much going on, or maybe it was the fish oil calming me down. No matter what it was, the interview went well.

I’ve never been one for public speaking, but I do have to say, it’s much easier when you know what you’re talking about. I have yet to actually watch it. That’s the thing, I hate watching or listening to myself. I can hear my tics and see them. I have become more comfortable ticcing, and being myself, but that doesn’t mean I sit around watching myself tic. No matter what, there is still that little self-conscious boy inside of me. That shy, scared little kid that doesn’t know what’s going on.

No matter what is going on in our life, I’m sure we can find something we are thankful for — we are alive. We have been blessed with the gift of life. Even though we might be given other gifts in life, we need to acknowledge that they are gifts. I might have spent most of my life hiding from my TS, but I now see it as a gift.

I feel I have been given this gift to learn from, and to educate people about the syndrome. I’m thankful for the people that I’ve touched, I’m thankful for the syndrome I was blessed with, and I’m thankful for you. Until next week, “I’ll tic to you later.”